Hadeeth Text Study (Selected Hadeeth from an Nawawi's 40 hadeeth)
This course is a survey of the principles upon which the study of hadeeth rests. The historical milieu that surrounded the developments of this science are taken into account and the methodology of this science that gradually appeared is rendered against its historical environment along with an analysis of its content. The various classification schemes are discussed and how the many developments of the science, although possibly seen independent of each other, are interconnected accumulating finally into a comprehensive critical appreciation of Islamic sources.
Shaykh Dr. Sa’d Bin Nasir Ash-Shathri, A Brief Introduction to An-Nawawi’s 40 Hadith
To enable students to better their worship of Allah Almighty by studying these core hadeeth
To understand these important hadeeth so as to improve one's practice of Islam
Discuss general meanings and life applications of the hadeeth
To understand the proofs of the ruling mentioned by the author.
To understand the importance of the various good deeds and various forms of worship prescribed
Appreciating the depth and breadth of wisdom found in the hadeeth
Hadeeth: “Surely, all actions are but driven by intentions, and verily every man shall have but that which he intended. Thus, he whose migration was for Allah and His Messenger, [then] his migration was for Allah and His Messenger; and he whose migration was to achieve some worldly benefit or to take a woman in marriage, his migration was for that which he migrated.”
Linguistic meaning of intention
Importance of intention
validity of deeds depends on intention
encouragement to be sincere and to purify our intentions
Hadeeth: “Islam is built upon five [pillars]: testifying that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; establishing the prayers; giving the Zakah; making the pilgrimage to the House; and fasting the month of Ramadaan.”
Knowledge of the 5 pillars of Islam
Brief explanation of each pillar
Use of similitudes in explaining shariah to people
major sin does not take a person out of Islam
Obligations are of two kinds: communal and individual.
Hadeeth: “Verily, each of you is brought together in his mother’s abdomen for forty days in the form of a drop of fluid. Then it is a clinging object for a similar [period]. Thereafter, it is a lump looking like it has been chewed for a similar [period]. The angel is then sent to him and he breathes into him the spirit. He is also commanded to issue four decrees: to record his sustenance, his lifespan, his deeds, and [whether he will be] unhappy [by entering Hell] or happy [by entering Paradise]. I swear by Allah, other than Whom there is no God, certainly, one of you will definitely perform the deeds of the people of Paradise until there is not between him and paradise except an arm’s length and then what has been recorded will overtake him and he shall perform the deeds of the people of Hell and enter it. And, certainly, one of you will definitely perform the acts of the people of Hell until there is not between him and Hell except an arm’s length and then what has been recorded will overtake him and he shall perform the deeds of the people of Paradise and enter it.”
Levels of narrations and which 5 levels are Jujjah
The various opinions on abortion
evidence that provision is predestined
no evidence to support preventing the servant from seeking a means of provision
evidence that actions are a cause for entering Paradise
Hadeeth: “That which is lawful is clear and that which is unlawful is clear and between the two of them are doubtful [or ambiguous] matters about which not many people are knowledgeable. Thus, he who avoids these doubtful matters certainly clears himself in regard to his religion and his honor. But he who falls into the doubtful matters falls into that which is unlawful like the shepherd who pastures around a sanctuary, all be grazing therein. Verily, every king has a sanctuary, and Allah’s sanctuary is His prohibitions. In the body there is a morsel of flesh which, if it be sound, all the body is sound and which, if it be diseased, all the body is diseased. This part of the body is the heart.”
the Shariah has clear features; it is clear in its rulings by its nature
encouragement to to lean away from or abstain from doubtful matters
the Shariah is complete and has left no matter unaddressed
some Shariah rules are clearer than others
some kinds of doubtful matters mix Halal and Haram
The person who sins exposes himself to Allah’s wrath
scrupulous conscience, is a result of the contents of the heart.
Hadeeth: “What I have forbidden you, stay away from. What I have ordered you [to do], do as much of it as you can. Verily, the people before you were destroyed only because of their excessive questioning and their disagreeing with their prophets.”
the jurisprudential principle that forbiddance implies prohibition
evidence that the Shariah of Islam is a legislation of mercy upon the servants and that it cares about them
[dar’ul-mafaasid muqadam jalb’ul-masaalih], prevention of evils takes precedence over instigation of pious works.
importance of heeding the example set by nations before us
the Muslim should perform the action that will provide for his safety and peace in this world and the hereafter\
the prohibition of differing and disputing
To know manners of differing and to try to avoid differing whenever possible.
Hadeeth: “Verily, Allah the Exalted is pure and accepts only that which is pure. Allah has commanded the believers to do that which He has commanded the Messengers. The Exalted has said, ‘O Messengers! Eat of the good things and do right.’ And the Exalted also said, ‘O believers! Eat of the good things that We have provided for you.’” Then he [the Prophet (peace be upon him)] mentioned a man who, after a long journey, is disheveled and dust-colored. “[The man] stretches his hands out toward the sky and says, ‘O Lord, O Lord!’ while his food is unlawful, his drink is unlawful, his clothing is unlawful, and his nourishments is unlawful. How is he to be answered [in such a state]?”
Allah accepts that which is good from charities and deeds. It should be done with pure intentions, free from showing off and conceit and the like.
Righteous deeds uphold two requisites. The first requisite is sincerity, purely for the sake of Almighty Allah and second requisite is accordance with the Shariah.
The source of provision is Allah Almighty. In this there is a reminder of few matters.
Whoever eats that which is good and thanks The Creator and Sustainer, he / she would indeed have fulfilled servitude. Worship is exclusively the right of Allah Almighty and should never be dedicated to other than Him.
Several causes for acceptance of a person’s supplication.
Learning the attribute of Allah, At Tayyib, The Good.
The lesson that general address to believers is inclusive of all mature, accoutbale, sane people – common men and women or prophets of Allah.
Learn that Shariah ordinances are not exempted for any person despite his or her high status including prophets.
Understand that if a person believes one obligated to follow the Shariah rulings, then his or her belief is corrupted and contradicts clear textual evidence.
Learn that reminders and admonitions can be through examples.
Learn the manner of raising one’s hands upwards while supplicating.
Evidence that Allah Almighty is above His creation.
Learn the manner of supplicating through pleading by Allah’s attribute and Names.
Allowance of begging Allah during supplication, using relevant attributes of Allah.
Learn some foods, clothes and drinks are forbidden which might cause rejection of one’s supplications.
Learn the issue of forbidden wealth in an act of obedience such as Hajj.
Learn the types of impressible money.
Learn the permissibility of insisting repetitively in supplication.
Learn that when supplication is not answered, it might be due to our actions.
Learn abandoning enjoining the good and forbidden the evil is another cause of unaccepted supplication.
Hadith: “Part of the perfection of a person’s Islam is his leaving that which is of no concern to him.”
Benefits from this hadith
Learn that Islam is different levels, a person’s Islam might be perfect or imperfect.
Learn that liking of leaving that which does not concern him or her ie Shariah deems to concern such as prohibited, disliked and doubtful matters.
Learn the instruction to protect from one’s tongue from vanity.
Learn that one should be eager to attain to perfect one’s Islam due to its great fruits.
Learn that when a person perfects his Islam and repents to Allah, then Allah changes his evil deeds to good deeds.
Hadith: “None of you (truly) believes until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself”
Benefits of this Hadith:
Learn the virtues of Anas ibn Maalik
Learn permissibility of serving those who spread the Sunnah.
Learn that faith increases and decreases as Ahlal Sunnah Wal Jamah stated.
Learn that should love goodness for their brothers. This is one of the qualities of faith.
Learn that part of the religion of Islam that believers help their believing brethren. A believer’s heart should contain mercy toward his or her believing brethren.
Learn that it is part of Islam to have a pure heart, free from deception, hatred and jealousy toward one’s brothers. One should not be arrogant or look down at other people.
Learn a lesson discouraging prejudice and self-interested favoritism. People must leave favoritism toward one’s group, party or sect because believers love for all of their brothers what they love for themselves.
Learns that one should not give everything to his brothers, leaving nothing for himself. Love is an action of the heart, and actions of the heart differ from the act of giving with one’s hand.
Learn the general message of this hadith that spiritual wants ie the Muslim should love that his believing brethren attain closeness to Allah and His paradise as he loves this for himself.
Learn that a person should love knowledge for his brother as he loves it for himself.
Learn that a person is permitted to discuss Allah’s bounties upon him.
Hadeeth: “Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should speak good things or keep silent. Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should be courteous and generous to his neighbor. Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should be courteous and generous to his [traveling] visitor.”
Benefits from this Hadeeth:
Learn the praiseworthiness of faith.
Learn the matters contained in faith.
Learn that actions are included in faith.
Learn that there is an evidence of the fluctuation of faith.
Learn that one should speak in a good and beneficial way which includes enjoining good behavior and forbidding evil behavior.
Learn that abstaining from bad speech brings one closer to his Lord.
Learn that speaking in goodness is preferable over silence. Silence is better than speaking in an evil way.
Learn that fasting from speech doesn’t draw closer to Allah, this is an innovation and is not permissible.
Learn that there are narrations ordering good treatment of neighbors as well as strong prohibitions against harming neighbors and neighbor has rights.
Learn that one should be generous towards his guest means perfection in their treatment
Hadeeth: A man came to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and said, “Advise me.” He said, “Do not become angry.” The man repeated [his request] several times, and he [the Prophet (peace be upon him)] said, “Do not become angry.
the permissibility of requesting advice
discouragement against getting angry
It is permissible to ask repeatedly for advice and admonition
Islam prohibits evil mannerisms
The Shariah came with the best and most complete manners.
Hadeeth: “Verily, Allah has prescribed excellence in all things. Thus, if you kill, kill in a good manner. If you slaughter, slaughter in a good manner. Each of you should sharpen his blade and spare suffering to the animal he is slaughtering.”
excellence is a permissible act by which one draws closer to Allah Almighty.
What is meant by excellence is demonstrating goodness toward others.
practice of presenting specific examples when teaching general principles
Animals should be slaughtered quickly and well
Hadeeth: “Fear Allah wherever you are. And follow up a bad deed with a good deed and it will wipe it out. And behave toward people with good behavior.”
the adjuration to haveتقوى[taqwa] of Allah Most High (God-consciousness).
Taqwa is not in one place in lieu of other places
Rulings are generally universal, unless specific conditions create exceptions.
evidence that sins may be wiped out by good deeds that occur afterward
repentance is meritorious, and Allah wipes away evil due to repentance
a person may have a mixture of good and bad deeds
Hadeeth: “Purification is half of the faith. The phrase alhamduli’llah fills the scale. The phrases subhanallah and alhamduli’llah together fill what is between the heavens and earth. Prayer is a light. Charity is a proof. Patience is a brightness. The Qur’an is either an argument for or against you. And everyone goes out in the morning and sells himself, either freeing or destroying himself.”
definition of wordالطُّهور[At-Tuhoor] and, الطَّهور [At-Tahoor]
all praise and thanks, in their most perfect form, are due to Allah alone\
the importance of personal hygiene and staying away from filth and the like.
recommendation for the person to continuously be in a state of ritual purity الطهارة
the existence of scales for good and bad deeds, and that deeds and sayings will literally be weighed upon these scales on the Day of Judgment.
Importance of prayer, charity and implementing the Quran in our lives
Hadeeth: On the authority of Abu Dharr al-Ghifaari (may Allah be pleased with him) from the Prophet (peace be upon him), from among the sayings he relates from his Lord Almighty, that He said, “O My servants, I have forbidden wrongdoing for Myself and I have made it forbidden for you. Therefore, do not wrong one another. O My servants, all of you are lost except for those whom I have guided. Therefore, seek guidance from Me and I will guide you. O my servants, all of you are hungry except for those whom I have fed. Therefore seek food from Me and I will feed you. O My servants, all of you are naked except for those whom I have clothed. Therefore, seek clothing from Me and I will clothe you. O My servants, you err (i.e. sin) by night and by day, and I forgive all sins. Therefore, seek forgiveness from Me and I will forgive you. O My servants, you will not be able to harm Me so as to bring any harm to Me, and you will not be able to benefit Me so as to bring any benefit to Me. O My servants, if the first and last of you and the human and jinn of you were as pious as the most pious heart of anyone among you, it would not add anything to My dominion. O My servants, if the first and last of you and the human and jinn of you were as wicked as the most wicked heart of anyone among you, it would not decrease anything from My dominion. O My servants, if the first and last of you and the human and jinn of you were to gather together on [the same sector] of land and all asked of Me and if I were to give everyone of them what he asked, that would not decrease what I have any more than a needle decreases what is in the ocean when it is put into it. O My servants, it is but your deeds that I reckon for you. Then I recompense you for them. The one who finds good is to give praises to Allah. The one who finds other than this should not blame anyone but himself.”
Hadeeth: Also on the authority of Abu Dharr (may Allah be pleased with him): Some of the companions of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said to the Prophet (peace be upon him), “O Messenger of Allah, the affluent have made off with the rewards. They pray like we pray, fast like we fast, and they also give in charity from their extra wealth.” He [the Prophet (peace be upon him)] said, “Has not Allah made things for you to do in charity? Verily, every tasbeehah is a charitable act, every takbeerah is a charitable act, every tahmeedah is a charitable act, every tahleelah is a chartiable act, ordering good is a charitable act, forbidding evil is a charitable act, and you having sexual intercourse [with your spouse] is a charitable act.” They said, “O Messenger of Allah, when one of us fulfils his desire, he will have a reward for that?” He said, “Tell me, if he were to fulfill it unlawfully, would he bear that sin? Similarly, if he fulfills it lawfully, he will have a reward.”
he great virtue of the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them.
he value and greatness of competing in doing good deeds
Charity is not confined to giving wealth.
Hadeeth: “Every small bone of everyone has upon it a charitable act for every day upon which the sun rises. Bringing about justice between two is an act of charity. Helping a man get on his mount, lifting him onto it or helping him put his belongings onto it, is a charitable act. A good word is a charitable act. Every step you take toward the prayer is a charitable act. And removing a harmful thing from the path is a charitable act.”
the obligation to give multiple charities every day
the virtue of justice
virtue of helping others.
virtue of performing prayers in the Masjid
Hadeeth: On the authority of Muaadh ibn Jabal (may Allah be pleased with him) who said: I said, “O Messenger of Allah, inform me of an act which will place me into Paradise and keep me away from the Fire.” He said, “You have asked about a great matter, but it is easy for whomever Allah—Exalted be He—makes it easy. [You should] Worship Allah and do not ascribe any partners to Him; establish the prayer; give the Zakah; fast Ramadaan; and make the pilgrimage to the House.” He then said, “Shall I not inform you of the gates to goodness? Fasting is a shield. Charity extinguishes the sins like water extinguishes a fire; and the prayer of a man in the depths of the night [also extinguishes sins].” Then he recited [the verses], “Who forsake their beds,” until he reached, “they used to do.” Then he said, “Shall I not inform you of the head of the matter, its pillar and its apex?” I said, “Certainly, O Prophet of Allah.” He said, “The head of the matter is submission [to Allah]. Its pillar is the prayer. And its apex is Jihad.” Then he said, “Shall I not inform you of what controls all of this?” I said, “Certainly, O Prophet of Allah.” He took hold of his tongue and said, “Restrain this.” I said, “O Prophet of Allah, will we be held accountable for what we say?” He said, “May your mother be bereaved of you, O Muaadh. Is there anything that has people thrown on their faces—or he said on their noses—into the Fire except that which their tongues reap?”
to keep Paradise and Hellfire in mind, and to work toward Paradise and avoid Hellfire.
The religion of Islam is founded upon ease.
servitude is a right of Allah Almighty over us
the obligation of the five daily prayers;
Great status and high ranks are for those who worship Allah with fear and hope
the permissibility of speaking figuratively
Hadeeth: “Do not be envious of one another; do not artificially raise prices against one another; do not hate one another; do not turn one’s back on each other; and do not undercut one another in business transactions. And be [O] servants of Allah, brethren. A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim. He does not wrong him. He does not fail him [when he needs him]. He does not lie to him. And he does not show contempt for him. Piety is here”—and he pointed to his chest three time. “It is enough evil for a person to hold his brother Muslim in contempt. All of a Muslim is inviolable to another Muslim—his blood, his wealth, and his honor.”
prohibition of envy
prohibition of artificial inflation
prohibition of mutual hatred
prohibition of disunity
prohibition of undercutting each others businesses
the inviolability of personal rights
aim to foster belief-based brotherhood among the believers
Hadeeth: “Whoever relieves a believer’s distress of the distressful aspects of this world, Allah will rescue him from a difficulty of the difficulties of the Hereafter. Whoever alleviates [the situation of] one in dire straits who cannot repay his debt, Allah will alleviate his lot in both this world and the Hereafter. Whoever conceals [the faults of] a Muslim, Allah will conceal [his faults] in this life and the Hereafter. Allah is helping the servant as long as the servant is helping his brother. Whoever follows a path in order to seek knowledge thereby, Allah will make easy for him, due to it, a path to Paradise. No people gather together in a house of the houses of Allah, reciting the Book of Allah and studying it among themselves, except that tranquility is descended upon them, mercy covers them, the angels surround them and Allah makes mention of them to those in His presence. Whoever is slowed by his deeds will not be hastened forward by his lineage.
reward for a deed is similar in nature to the deed
great encouragement to conceal the shortcomings of others
One must do his or her best to conceal shortcomings of those who fall into sin
Taking a path to seek knowledge may be literal or figurative
Knowledge is a path that leads to Paradise
lineage does not benefit a person unless it is combined with good deeds.